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DETAILED SYLLABUS FOR THE POST OF HIGHER SCONDARY SCHOOL TEACHER IN ARABIC IN KERALA HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION PSC Exam

(Cat. No.: 732/2021, 14/2023, 15/2023 )
Module – 1 (7 Marks )
Grammar and Morphology
Grammar
al Jumla al Mufida – al Mudakkar wal al Mu annas – al Mufrad wal Muthanna ‟ wal Jam a – Anwa ul Jumal – al Nakira wal Ma rifa – al Jumla al Ismiyya – al- Mubtada wal Khabar – Anwa ul Fi al – al Jumla al Fi liyya – al Fa il – al  Maf ul Bihi – Huruful Jarr – al Idafa – al Sifa – I rabul Muthanna – I rabul  Jam a (Taksir & Salim) Fi l Sahih – Fi l Mu tall – I rabul Fi al – al Dama ir   – al Af alul Khamsa, Istifham – Ismul Ishara – Asma ul Mawsula – Kana, Inna  wa Akhawatuha , Tamyiz – Adad – Na ib Fa il – Dharf Zaman – Dharf Makan  – Hal – Istithna – Atf – Nafy ‟

Morphology
Fi l Madi – Mudari – Amr – Nahy – Thulathi Mujarrad – Thulathi Mazid –  Ruba iMujarrad – Ruba iMazeed, Fi al Sahih, Fi al Mu tall , Types of Fi al Ghayr Sālim:Fi al Mu tall: Mithāl, Ajwaf, Nāqis, Lafīf Mafrūq, Lafīf Maqrūn , Fi al Sahih: Mudā af, Mahmūz ‟ ‟


Module – 2 (7 Marks )

Contemporary Arab world

The Arab nations before the Ottomon rule – a general survey, The Arab countries under the Ottomon rule – Political, economic and social conditions – Attempts of resistance to and cession from the Ottomon rule – French occupation of Egypt – Egypt under Mohammed Ali Pasha ,Attempts of reform in Arab countries – Islamic reform movements – Political, religious and intellectual awakening , Arab world under European colonization – The ‘Eastern Question’ – Colonisation of various Arab countries by France, Britain and Italy,
The Arab world during the First World War till the present day , The Arab revolt
against the Ottomon rule – The British. French and Italian occupation of the
various Arab countries – Freedom movements.

Module – 3 (7 Marks )

1. Classical Literature in Arabic
A. Jahiliyya Literature : Pre-Islamic Poetry: Origin and development of pre-Islamic poetry – Sources of poetry – Salient features – Place of poetry in the Arab life – Important poetry collections – Mu’allaqat and authors – Other important Jahiliyya poets. Pre-Islamic Prose: Jahiliyya Prose – Oratory and orators, Saj’, Proverbs and other forms of prose literature.
B. Islamic Literature : Islamic Poetry: Mukhdaram poets – Impact of Islam and Qur’an on poetry – Approach of Islam to poetry – Pious Califs and poetry. Islamic Prose: Qur’an – Its revelation and compilation – I’jaz al-Qur’an – Tafsir literature – Hadith Literature – collection and compilation of hadith – Sihah Sita.
C. Umayyad Literature : Umayyad Poetry: Umayyad Society – Nature and development of Naqa’id, Political and Ghazal poetry – Famous poets. Umayyad Prose: Characteristic features – Orators – Risala writers – Literary criticism – Development of Umayyad prose style.
2. A. Abbasid Poetry & Prose
Salient features of Abbasid Poetry , Important Poets : Bashar, Abu Nuwas, Abu al-Atahiya, Muslim bin al-Walid, Abu Tammam, alBuhuturi, al-Mutanabbi, Abu Ala’ al-Ma’arri …etc.
Salient features of Abbasid Prose, Prominent writers : Abdullah ibn alMuqaffa’, al-Jahiz, Ibn Qutayba, al-Hamadani, al-Hariri …etc. . Forms of prose literature: Maqama, Tawqi at, Risala writing, fictional, scientific ‟ and artistic writing, Alf Layla wa layla, Ikhwan al-Safa
Intellectual awakening during Abbasid period: Translation movementBait al-Hikma- Historical, geographical, philosophical and scientific works in medieval Arabic – Arab philosophers, historians and scientists : al-Kindi, Ibn Sina, al-Razi, al-Farabi, al-Ghazzali, al-Mas’udi, al-Tabari, Ibn Batuta, al-Khawarazmi, Jabir ibn Hayyan.
B. Arabic literature in Spain
Development of Arabic literature in Spain: Muslims in Spain – Prose and Poetry – Muwashshahat and Zajl – Notable literary figures: Ibn Hani’, Ibn Zaydun, Ibn Khaffaja, Lisanuddin ibn al-Khatib, Ibn Abdi Rabbihi, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Shuhayd, Ibn Tufayl, Ibn al-Arabi
C. Arabic literature in Middle Ages
Arabic Literature and Arts in the Middle ages: Prose and poetry during Fatimid, Ayyobid, Mamlook and Ottoman periods – prominent figures and works – Ibn Khaldun and his Muqaddima – Ibn Khallikan, al-Busiri, Ibn Kathir

Module – 4 (7 Marks )

Indian Arabic Literature
A. Historical background of Indo-Arab relations- Development of Arabic language and literature in India– A general survey of Indian contribution and works in Arabic in the field of Arabic and Islamic sciences like literature, Tafsir, Hadith, Jurisprudence, Grammar, Biography, History, Philosophy, Theology, Linguistics, Poetics and General science.

B. Development of Arabic studies in India – A general survey of educational institutions like Dar al-Uloom, Deoband; Nadwat al-Ulama, Lecknow; Aligarh Muslim university, Jamia Millia Islamic university, New Delhi, Jamia Salafiyya, Varanasi, Da’ira al-Ma’arif, Hyderabad, Baqiyat alSalihat, Vellore, etc.

C. Contribution of notable personalities to Arabic and Islamic literature like Shah Valiyyullah al-Dahlawi, Ghulam Ali Azad al-Bilgrami, Anwar Shah al-Kashmiri, Abd al-Haqq Muhaddis al-Dahlawi, Abd al-Hayy al-Hasni, Zayn al-Din al-Makhdum al-Saghir, Fadl Haqq Khayrubadi, Fayd alHasan Saharanburi, al-Qadi Umar al-Bilanquti, Siddiq Hasan Khan alKanuji, Shybli al-Nu’mani, al-Sayyid Sulaiman al-Nadwi, Mas’ud Alam al-Nadwi, Abu al-Hasan Ali al-Nadwi, Abu Layla Muhammad bin Meeran, Dr. Mohiyi al-Din al-Aluwaiy, Muhammad Wadih Rashid alNadwi, Muhammad al-Rabi’ al-Nadwi, etc.

D. Significance of the famous Indo-Arabic works like: Hujjatullah alBaligha, Subhat al-Marjan, Nuzhat al-Khawatir, Tuhfat al-Mujahidin, Mada Khasira al-Alam bi Inhitat al-Muslimin, Fath al-Kabir, Taj al-Arus, Fath al-Muin, al-Muslimuna fi al-Hind, etc.

E. Development of Arabic Language and its literature in Kerala- Advent of Islam to Malabar – Arabic poetry in Kerala and stages of its development – Important Arabic poets in Kerala – Arabi-Malayalam script – Arabic studies in Kerala – Centres of Arabic learning – Future of Arabic in Kerala.

Module – 5 (7 Marks )

Arabic Rhetoric , Prosody and Linguistics

A. Rhetoric
1. Introduction to Arabic rhetoric – Importance and divisions of rhetoric
elements: al-Ma’ani, al-Bayan and al-Badi’ – Fasaha- Balagha – Style of writing
– History of writing in Arabic rhetoric.
2. Ilm al-Bayan : All items
3. Ilm al-Ma’ani : All items
3. Ilm al-Badi : All items ‟

B. Prosody
1. Introduction to the science of prosody in Arabic, its history and developmentKhalil ibn al-Ahmad
2. Parts of Arabic verse – 16 Arabic metres and its scanning – al-Zihaf and alIlla
3. Ilm al-qafiya: Types of rhymes – weakness in rhyme – Sinad.
4. Practising the scanning of Arabic verses and finding out the metres of the
poems

C. Linguistics
Linguistics: Definition, origin and function – Ilm al-Lugha and Fiqh al-Lugha – Areas of linguistics: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Etymology and Lexicography – Introduction to General and Applied linguistics – Types of linguistics – Psycho linguistics, socio linguistics, computational linguistics, descriptive linguistics and historical linguistics Language Families: Semitic, Chamito and Indo-European language families – Semitic languages – characteristics of Semitic languages – classification of
Semitic languages. Arabic Language: Origin and development of Arabic- Arabic and other Semitic languages – characteristics of Arabic language – Arabic dialects – classification
of Arabic dialects.

Module – 6 (7 Marks)

Literary Criticism in Arabic
A. Criticism: Meaning and function, Importance – Types and approaches of Criticism: Artistic approach, Historical approach, Psychological approach, Linguistic approach and Modernist approach – Methods of criticism – Merits and demerits of criticism

B. Study of Literary forms and its characteristics: Poetry: Lyrical, epic and dramatic poetry, Prose, Short story, Novel, Drama and Essay – Elements of literature

C. Development of Classical Arabic literary criticism : origin and development of criticism during pre-Islamic period – al-Nabigha – Approach of Islam and Qur’an towards literature – The Prophet and Umar – Criticism during Umayyad period – Sukayna and Ibn Atiq – Naqa’id poetry- Criticism and rhetoric– origin of objective criticism during the Abbasid period- Ibn Sallam, al-Jahiz and Ibn-Qutayba – Qudama ibn Ja’far and al-Amidi- Controversy over Abu Tammam and al-Mutanabbi – Abu Hilal al-Askari, Ibn Rashiq, Abdul Azeez al-Jujani – I’jaz al-Qur’an and criticism: Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani – Criticism in Spain: Ibn Shuhayd – Criticism in the Middle ages: Hazim al-Qartajanni and Ibn khaldun.

D. European Literary Theories and its influence in Arabic literary criticism: Trends, Schools, Theories and Attitudes of the West: Neo-Classicism, Romanticism, European and Socialist Realism, Symbolism, PsychoAnalysis, Surrealism, Existentialism, Art for art’s sake, Expressionism, Impressionism, Structuralism, Post Structuralism, Deconstruction,
Modernism and Post Modernism.

E. Modern and Contemporary Arabic Literary Criticism: Literary revival in the Arab world – western influence – Husayn al-Marsafi and Muhammad al-Muwaylihi – Neo classical literature – Khalil Mutran and the Proromantic school in Arabic – The Diwan School- Taha Husayn and days of controversies – Conflict between traditional and modern trends – Realism – Free verse movement – clashes between socialists and purists – Committed literature – Muhammad Mandur, Ahmad Amin, Rashad Rushdi, Shawqi Dayf – Approach of Arab world to the Mahjar literature – Islaic literary criticism: Sayyid Qutub, Anwar al-Jundi – Linguistic and Structural criticism in Arabic: Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Syria and Lebanon
– Contemporary Arabic literary criticism – Psychological criticism: George Tarabishi.

Module – 7 (7 Marks)

Short Story , Novel and Drama in Arabic
A. Short Story in Arabic:
Background of Narrative literature and fiction in Arabic literary heritage –influence of western short stories – Translation movement of western shortstories – Advent of Arabic journalism and fiction – Early short stories of Salimal-Bustani and other Syro-lebanies story writers – Muhammad Taymur andArabic realistic short story in Egypt – Mustafa Lutfi al-Manfaluti, MahmudTaymur, Yusuf Idris, Yahya Haqqi, Ihsan Abd al-Quddus – Contemporary
experimental short story: Jamal al-Ghaytani, Abd al-Hamid Haduqa.

B. Novel in Arabic:

Origin and Development of novel literature in Arabic – western influence inArabic novel – Early translations – Modern forms of Maqamas Muhammad alMuwaylihi – Early novels in Lebanon and Syria, Salim al-Bustani – Historical novels of Jurji Zaydan – Jubran Khalil Jubran -Early Egyptian novels – Muhammad Husayn Haykal and “Zaynab”- Social, analytical and psychological novels : Mahmud Tahir Lashin, al-Mazini, Taha Husayn, Tawfiq al-Hakim and Mahmud Taymur – Najib Mahfuz and Egyptian realistic novel – Nobel prize for Arab novel – Islamic novels: Najib al-Kilani –Autobiographical Novels – Issue of Colloquial and literal language in novel – Palestine novel and Ghazzan alKanafani – Modern experimental novels : Edward al-Kharrat, al-Tayyib Salih.

C. Drama in Arabic:

Origin and development of drama and theatre in the Arab world – Western influence – Early theatre – contribution of Christian Arab theatre groups in Beirut and Damascus – Marun al-Naqqash, Abu Khalil al-Qabbani- Ya’qub Sanu’ and the emergence of Egyptian national theatre – The advent of verse drama : Ahmad Shawqi, Aziz Abaza – Jurj Abyad and his troup in Egypt – Mahmud Taymur, Ibrahim Ramzi – Tawfiq al-Hakim and Arabic prose drama – Arabic play after Tawfiq- Colloquial plays – Islamic plays, Ahmad Ba Kathir- Arab theatre in various Arab countries

Module – 8 ( 7 Marks )

Modern Poetry in Arabic

A. Background of Literary revival in Arab countries with special reference to Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq – Pillars of literary awakening – Pioneers  of renaissance.

B. A general survey of the following literary schools and trends in Arabic literature with special reference to modern poetry: Neo-classicism, Proromanticism, Romanticism, European Realism, Socialist Realism, Surrealism, Existentialism, Symbolism, Free verse and Blank VerseResistance poetry and Palestine issue – New experimental poetry in
Arabic.

C. Literary Movements: Madrasat al-Diwan, Apollo Movement, Mahjar literature in north and south Americas. – Development of modern Arabic poetry in various Arab countries – Salient features of modern Arabic poetry- A brief account of prominent modern Arabic poets and their works – Women poets in modern Arabic.

Module – 9 ( 7 Marks )

History of Arabic Journalism and Film

A. Arabic Journalism
History of Arabic journalism , Role of journalism in literary and political awareness , Prominent newspapers, journals in Arabic , Press personalities in the Arab world , Electronic journalism in Arabic B. Arabic Journalism in India Development of Arabic journalism in India – Arabic journals and periodicals in Kerala

C. Arab Films
History and development of Arab Cinema in Egypt – Silent Movies – Egyptian movies during the World Wars – New Cinema in 60s & 70s – Egyptian films & Media – Literature & Films – Studio Misr – Cairo Film Festival- Censorship in Egypt , Prominent film personalities in Egypt: Yousuf Shahin, Salah Abu Sayf, Husayn Kamal, Kamal al-Sheikh, Henry Barakat, Hassan al-Imam,

Module – 10 ( 7 Marks )

History of the Arabs

A. Ancient Arabia: Characteristics – Geographical and political condition , Ancient Arabian Kingdoms , Socio-religious life – Ayyam al-Arab
B. Prophet Muhammad and his early life in Makkah , Advent of Islam (610- 622) : Revelation, secret and public preaching – Persecution of Makkans – Migration to Abysinia –Taif Visit – Pledges of Aqaba – Migration to Yathrib , Islam in Madina (622- 632)– Ansars, Muhajirs and Jews – The great battles of Badr, Uhad, Khandaq – Treaty of Hudaybiyya and Conquest of Makkah – Battles of Hunayn, Khaibar, Mutat etc. – Expedition to Tabuk – Prophet s‟pilgrimage and demise

C. The Pious Caliphate ( 632-661) : Abu Bakar al-Siddiq: his accession to Khalifate and rule – The ridda wars – services to Islam and Military expeditions , Umar bin al-Khatab : administration and expeditions , Services , Murder of Umar , Uthman bin Affan : administration and services to Islam , Internal problems and assassination of Uthman , Ali bin Abi Talib :Personality , Conflict between Ali and Mu awiya , Civil wars: Jamal and Siffin , Execution of Ali ‟

D. The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750) – Establishment of the Umayyad dynasty – Husayn and the massacre of Karbala , Umayyad rulers: Mu awiya – Yazid – Abdul Malik – Walid – Umar bin Abdil Aziz – ‟ Hisham – Marwan II

E. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258) – Establishment and expansion of the Abbasid kingdom , The Great Abbasids – al-Saffah, al-Mansur, alMahdi, Harun al-Rashid, al-Amin, al-Ma mun, al-Mu tasim, al- Mutawakkil – The Bermakids – Later Abbasis , Fall of Baghdad: Causes
and course

Part II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND TEACHING APTITUDE (10 Marks)

I. TEACHING APTITUDE (5 Marks)
 Teaching: Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirements;
 Learner’s characteristics;
 Factors affecting teaching;
 Methods of teaching;
 Teaching aids;
 Evaluation systems.

II. RESEARCH APTITUDE (5 Marks)
 Research: Meaning, Characteristics and types;
 Steps of research;
 Methods of research;
 Research Ethics;
 Paper, article, workshop, seminar, conference and symposium;
 Thesis writing: its characteristics and format.


PART III Salient Features of Indian Constitution and Social
Welfare Legislations and Programme (10 Marks)
Salient Features of Indian Constitution
Salient features of the Constitution – Preamble- Its significance and its place in the interpretation of the Constitution.
Fundamental Rights – Directive Principles of State Policy – Relation between Fundamental
Rights and Directive Principles – Fundamental Duties.
Executive – Legislature – Judiciary – Both at Union and State Level. – Other Constitutional
Authorities.
Centre-State Relations – Legislative – Administrative and Financial.
Services under the Union and the States. Emergency Provisions.
Amendment Provisions of the Constitution.
Social Welfare Legislations and Programmes
Social Service Legislations like Right to Information Act, Prevention of atrocities against Women & Children, Food Security Act, Environmental Acts etc. and Social Welfare Programmes like Employment Guarantee Programme, Organ and Blood Donation etc.

Part IV GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS and RENAISSANCE IN KERALA (10 Marks)

TOWARDS A NEW SOCIETY
Introduction to English education – various missionary organisations and their functioningfounding of educational institutions, factories, printing press etc.


EFFORTS TO REFORM THE SOCIETY
(A) Socio-Religious reform Movements
SNDP Yogam, Nair Service Society, Yogakshema Sabha, Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham,
Vaala Samudaya Parishkarani Sabha, Samathwa Samajam, Islam Dharma Paripalana
Sangham, Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha, Sahodara Prasthanam etc.

(B) Struggles and Social Revolts
Upper cloth revolts.Channar agitation, Vaikom Sathyagraha, Guruvayoor Sathyagraha,
Paliyam Sathyagraha. Kuttamkulam Sathyagraha, Temple Entry Proclamation, Temple Entry Act .Malyalee Memorial, Ezhava Memorial etc.
Malabar riots, Civil Disobedience Movement, Abstention movement etc.

ROLE OF PRESS IN RENAISSANCE
Malayalee, Swadeshabhimani, Vivekodayam, Mithavadi, Swaraj, Malayala Manorama,
Bhashaposhini, Mathnubhoomi, Kerala Kaumudi, Samadarsi, Kesari, AI-Ameen,
Prabhatham, Yukthivadi, etc

AWAKENING THROUGH LITERATURE
Novel, Drama, Poetry, Purogamana Sahithya Prasthanam, Nataka Prashtanam, Library
movement etc

WOMEN AND SOCIAL CHANGE
Parvathi Nenmenimangalam, Arya Pallam, A V Kuttimalu Amma, Lalitha
Prabhu.Akkamma Cheriyan, Anna Chandi, Lalithambika Antharjanam and others

LEADERS OF RENAISSANCE
Thycaud Ayya Vaikundar, Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyan Kali.Chattampi Swamikal, Brahmananda Sivayogi, Vagbhadananda, Poikayil Yohannan(Kumara Guru) Dr Palpu,
Palakkunnath Abraham Malpan, Mampuram Thangal, Sahodaran Ayyappan, Pandit K P
Karuppan, Pampadi John Joseph, Mannathu Padmanabhan, V T Bhattathirippad, Vakkom
Abdul Khadar Maulavi, Makthi Thangal, Blessed Elias Kuriakose Chaavra, Barrister G P
Pillai, TK Madhavan, Moorkoth Kumaran, C. Krishnan, K P Kesava Menon, Dr.Ayyathan
Gopalan, C V Kunjuraman, Kuroor Neelakantan Namboothiripad, Velukkutty Arayan, K P
Vellon, P K Chathan Master, K Kelappan, P. Krishna Pillai, A K Gopalan, T R Krishnaswami
Iyer, C Kesavan. Swami Ananda Theerthan , M C Joseph, Kuttippuzha Krishnapillai and
others

LITERARY FIGURES
Kodungallur Kunhikkuttan Thampuran, KeralaVarma Valiyakoyi Thampuran, Kandathil
Varghesc Mappila. Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer,
G Sankara Kurup, Changampuzha Krishna Pillai, Chandu Menon, Vaikom Muhammad
Basheer. Kesav Dev, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, Ponkunnam Varky, S K Pottakkad and
others


GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS
General Knowledge and Current Affairs